Does Pot Size Matter in Hydroponics?

Hydroponic Pot Size

Hydroponic growers have many things to consider. First is the type of system they will be using, what are the best nutrients, and are they growing indoors or outdoors. All of this can create an intricate balance to make sure plants receive the best of everything. One factor, which might be overlooked, is the pot size, and how it affects plant growth.

Does pot size matter in hydroponics? Yes, pot size does matter in hydroponics. Incorrect pot size can hamper growth, and bigger isn’t always better. There are different pot construction types; and other factors like temperature, space, and most of all the plants themselves to consider.

If you are struggling to know how to choose the correct size and type of pot for your plants and your system, carry on reading the information below so you can quickly select the right size and type of pot for maximum plant growth and health.

Choosing and Using the Best Hydroponic Pots for Strong and Healthy Plants

Determining Factors for Pot Size

To make sure plants are presented with the best opportunity to flourish, there needs to be a delicate juggling act by the grower in three distinct areas. When these are combined, they all help determine pots sizes to be used throughout plants growing cycles.

Space – This will be determined by the type of hydroponic system. Indoors hydroponics systems can have reduced area compared to outdoor systems. Not only would these restrictions be overall floor space, but height is something else to consider. When you have a height restriction, you will need to use shorter pots, and this equates to shorter plants.

Temperature – This variable catches many growers out when they are first starting. If you are growing indoors and using HID grow lights, or your plants are in an area of direct sunlight, you could find your pots drying out too quickly. To solve this, you might need to increase your flood time in an ebb and flow system, or you can opt for a drip irrigation system to prevent drying. On the other end of the scale, you have areas which are cooler. Larger pots can remain too moist, and with this comes suffocation and rotting of the roots.

Plants – Your plants will be one of the most distinct areas that dictate pot size. If you are planting seedlings or cuttings, then pot size will be much smaller than when they are healthy growing plants. At this early stage, pots of around 4-inches are sufficient, and once their roots are taking hold, you can transplant up to pots of 6-12 inches to encourage fast root growth.

Basics of Growing Pots and Why Size Matters

All forms of gardening that use growing pot’s fall under the same rules. Growers will pot up their plants into a smaller container, and then transplanting them as they grow.

In hydroponics, the only difference being, this process of potting up is used to encourage plant growth, and also maximize growing space. Once nutrients hit the growing media, they need to spread across the surface so plants can absorb all they need. At this point, pot size comes into play for two reasons.

A pot that is too small will mean plants can be standing in waterlogged growing media for an extended period. This is not good, and roots can suffocate, and then if left, they can start to rot. Pots which are too large allow the nutrient solution to evaporate before the plant has a chance to absorb all the nutrients it requires fully.

Root growth is dramatically affected by pot size, and this is where transplanting helps with faster growth. Roots spread across pots in an outward fashion rather than searching downward, and because they are in containers, they quickly hit the side and can’t go any further. At this point, they circle back on themselves and start bunching up. Plants become root bound, and can’t take up nutrients in an efficient manner which leads to stunted growth.

In larger pots, roots tend not to seek out the sides of the pot, and their root growth becomes limited, again this prevents plants growing to their maximum because nutrients have further to travel before reaching the plant.

Using Different Sized Pots in a Hydroponic System

Once you have a hydroponic system, there is a limit to how many pots you can use for the space you have available. This can be even more restrictive if you are growing indoors and using grow lights. A simple formula can help to determine pot sizes you can use for a specific space.

The growing light can be the starting point, and for each 600W of light, you should use 50-60 liters of growing media. This can be sufficient for pots which will be placed in a 1.2 meter squared growing bed. For a bed of this size, you can use the following as a guide as to what pot sizes will fit into this area.

  • 6 x 10L (3 gallons) growing pots
  • 4 x 15L (4 gallons) growing pots
  • 2 x 30L (8 gallons) growing pots
  • 1 x 60L (16 gallons) growing pot

As you can see, all of the above reach to 60 litres (16 gallons) of growing media. Now, we need to look at how this will equate to your plant size, so they obtain the maximum amounts of benefits. A growing pot should be 1 gallon for each foot your plant grows in height. Looking at the above information, a 3-gallon pot is suitable for a plant which is no more than feet in height. When gardening indoors, most of your pot sizes will be 3 or 4 gallons in size.

For outdoor growers, pot size needs to be considered due to atmospheric evaporation. When a pot holds the right sized plant, you can water less often. However, when a plant isn’t large enough, the roots won’t seek out the pot, and you will waste both growing media and nutrient solution because it evaporates before reaching the plant’s limited number of roots.

Perched Water Tables and Pot Drainage

Because of the way hydroponic systems work, nutrients and water are fed to plants at set intervals using a hydroponic timer. As a result, the pot’s drainage needs to be sufficient to allow time for oxygen to reach the roots. Pot shape or size has no bearing on how adequate nutrients enter or leave the growing pots; all this is down to the growing media you are using.

When a pot drains between fill cycles, there will always be a section at the bottom which remains saturated, this is known as a perched water table. Something many growers are unaware of is, water isn’t evenly distributed through a growing pot. There are capillary action and adhesion where water is attracted to particles. Because of these two factors, water defies the forces of gravity when draining (matric potential), and these forces increase the lower you go down the pot.

Pot height has a bearing on the air to water ratio, and regardless of pot size, these perched water tables will be the same when the same growing media is used. Depending on growing media in use such as coco coir, some growers add pebbles to the lower portion of their pots to aid drainage. With the principles of perched water tables mean this situation isn’t resolved, and what actually happens is the perched water table level is raised.

This addition of pebbles can prevent run-off from being sucked back into growing pots by the natures of capillary action, and this in itself helps plants get the oxygen they need.

Smart Pots and Air Pots

Pot size is crucial, and aside from wasting hydroponic nutrients from oversized pots, it is healthy root growth which is the most critical. Plants that don’t seek out the pot, or become root bound will not grow to their potential. There have been a few innovations in pot design, and these can significantly help with crop yields.

Smart pots – These pots are made of a porous fabric that allows nutrients to flow in and then to drain excess water. Water travels by capillary action from the wetter parts to drier parts, so there is less chance of perched water tables causing problems, and roots have the opportunity to grab the oxygen they need.

Other areas these Smart Pots can benefit is from air-pruning. Roots reach the side of the pot and stop, they no longer circle back on themselves and become root bound, but the plant sends out new feeder roots, these absorb nutrients faster which leads to larger healthier plants. If there is a downside, it could be larger plants might need additional support.

Air pots – These plastic pots have been developed over a decade, and their primary goal is air-pruning. The sides are constructed in a cone-shaped fashion which encourages roots to seek out the pot. Once they hit the side, they are air-pruned, and then new feeder roots are sprouted by the plant. Air Pots build on the features of Smart Pots and can increase yields by significant quantities.

If there were a downside, it would be highly efficient draining the pots have, so you might find you need to water more frequently.

Although these pots can drastically improve your plants, the same rules of pot size should be followed, but with the efficient air-pruning, slightly smaller pot sizes can be used to no detriment of your plant’s health.

Related Questions

Do Plants outgrow their pots?

Roots, which are starting to grow out of the drainage holes, is the first sign of a pot-bound plant. Healthy plants will outgrow their pots, and the best way to reinvigorate growth is to transplant your plant into one that is two to four inches larger in diameter.

How high does water go in flood and drain system pots?

Once you set your system, fill each pot three-quarters full of growing medium. You should run the system until water reaches the level of your growing media. This should be the maximum water height. If water rises above this level, add more growing medium before adding plants.

Can you reuse smart pots?

Smart pots are reusable once growing cycles or transplants have been completed. Before reusing a smart pot, they should be thoroughly washed and cleaned. The most important thing any gardener should do is make sure the pot is thoroughly dry.

Can You Grow Avocado in a Hydroponics System?

Avocado in Hydroponics

When people think of growing in hydroponic systems, they tend to think of more popular vegetables and fruits like lettuce, peppers, tomatoes, and strawberries. However, with some careful tweaking, it can be possible to grow an Avocado tree in a hydroponic system.

Can you grow avocado in a hydroponics system? Yes, you can grow Avocado in your hydroponic system when you give them the right growing conditions to thrive. The major drawback being the size of the tree when it reaches maturity, but tackling this early on can give you bumper crops of Avocado.

If you are up for the challenge and you want to start growing avocado in your hydroponic system, carry on reading, and all will be explained about how you can have a healthy tree that won’t take up too much space.

Growing Hydroponic Avocado – Where to Start

One of the first things that you should know when starting to grow an avocado tree is, you should be looking at growing two, the reason being when your trees finally reach pollination. There are two types, type A which sheds its pollen in the afternoon and is receptive to being pollinated in the morning, and type B which sheds pollen in the morning and is responsive to being pollinated in the afternoon.

If you are growing from seeds, you should note your tree won’t give fruit of the same variety because they don’t breed as true to seed. When you have two types of avocado trees, these will grow and breed true to their variety.

With this in mind and the fact you will be running your hydroponic system for four years upward before seeing any fruits, you need to mimic everything for your trees as if they were growing in their natural habitat.

You will need warm temperatures and plenty of light. This is one reason why they are ideal for growing in sunny parts of the house or in an enclosed patio to avoid cold winter chills. One thing that is a must is your grow lights; these will need to be either LED growing lights, metal halide lamps or high-pressure sodium light fixtures. We’ve written a complete guide to grow lights here to help you understand what to look out for and get your head around the terminology.

In the beginning pot size isn’t an essential factor, but it is discussed later as they do play a crucial part in the growth of your tree. The main thing is if you wish to grow from seeds or purchase trees which are already on their way. If you aren’t sure about what pot size to use, try our pot size guide. Trees taken from grafts are much better for growing fruit than ones which are grown from seeds. Varieties of avocado can be purchased directly from specialty retailers that deal with colder climates.

Steps of Growing From an Avocado Seed

If you decide to grow from seeds, you can find these online from tropical seed retailers or at a local nursery. Growing from seeds does take much longer, but there could be a higher sense of satisfaction when your tree starts sprouting up. 

  1. Buy an avocado and remove the large seed from inside. Wash off any of the flesh but preserve the brown skin on the seed. Pat dry and set it aside to dry for a few days.
  2. Avocado pits have tops and bottoms. Look for the end which is more pointed. You should also notice the base has a slightly flat shape compared to the top. This is crucial because if you place it the wrong way up, your tree will be doomed from the start.
  3. Place the seed with the larger end at the bottom inside an AvoSeedo floater and float the container in a container of warm water at around 65 degrees. Change this frequently.
  4. Within a few days a root will begin to form, and then from the top, the first signs of a tree will poke from the top.
  5. When roots are almost filling the container, it is time to transplant to a pot.

Dwarfing Your Avocado Tree

This is the actual secret into growing avocado trees in hydroponic systems. Fully grown trees can grow up to 80ft high, but when you dwarf your tree, it can be a more manageable size while still providing fruits. To do this, restrictions on the tree growing space need to be imposed, the available water and also the nutrients provided must be strictly controlled.

These three elements will be a juggling act to let the tree grow as fast as it can while stunting its growth, and making sure it doesn’t die. If you are purchasing from a specialist tree dealer, don’t try to save time by buying a larger tree, the smaller, the better so you can shape its growth.

The growing pot at this stage should be as small as possible, but large enough to carry the plant for its first 12-months. Eighteen inches (45cm) is an ideal size to start, and then you will need to increase the size. This growing space will dictate the size of your final tree, so once the roots are well formed, you can move to a five gallon (20-25L) sized container. As time runs on, you might be able to go larger in pot size so your tree can reach its full potential while remaining small.

The containers should be filled with either perlite, vermiculite or coco fiber. A flood and drain method will be the most effective because any growth of algae will be prevented. Other systems used can be a drip irrigation system and would need three emitters per avocado tree.

With either method, the crucial part is preventing the root ball from drying out. Likewise, when you are transplanting to the growing pot, be careful not to damage any roots. Avocado likes to have their roots carefully tended to.

Pinching will be a necessary step to keep your tree fuller and shorter. The terminal bud needs to be pinched out and as a result, the buds which are dormant along the branch spring into life. These branches grow outward rather than upward, thus keeping the shorter height.

Even with a shorter height, the dwarfed plant will still be producing full-sized leaves. The final height of your tree will be around four to five feet in height.

Modifying Your Hydroponic Growing Setup for an Avocado Tree

Two things which need controlling are the acidity (pH) and the salt content in the growing medium and the nutrient mixture. For optimal growth a pH of between six and seven is ideal, but salt content needs to be as low as possible. Dwarfed avocado trees don’t take to higher levels of salt, and this is one reason growers like the flood and drain because it helps to keep salts to a minimum. You can learn how to build a flood and drain (also known as ebb and flow) system with our comprehensive guide.

In the early stages, your nutrient mix should be half strength and your pH levels controlled with a digital reader, our guide to measuring and controlling your pH may help here. Once your tree starts to get bigger and stronger, you can increase your nutrients to full strength.

Depending on the species of avocado, they might need a cold spell once they are at the fruiting stage. This can vary, and it will also affect how you control the temperature of your nutrient mix.

Although you can grow these trees indoors, the aim is to get fruit. Indoor trees might not fruit, so this type of project is more suited to a greenhouse where you can control the temperatures and the humidity. One final thing to remember is, even with a tree which is much shorter than a wild grown variety, it will need a form of secondary staking.

The hydroponic growing medium doesn’t have the same sort of support as the earth, and with the upper weight of the tree increasing, it can quickly force your growing pot to capsize.   

Related Questions

Does an avocado tree need full sun?

Because the trees herald from Mexico, they do prefer full sun, but they do need protection from the western sun over the first few years. Once they develop strong root structures and dense leaves to protect the bark, they become much better at resisting strong sun.

How often will an Avocado tree produce fruit?

A full-sized avocado tree can produce up to 300 fruit per tree when it reaches around seven years of age. They do sometimes have alternate bears and have a bumper crop one season, and a smaller crop the following season. Dwarf avocado might be different to in volume due to their more diminutive stature.

Will my avocado produce fruit?

Trees which are sold from grafts produce fruit quicker than ones which are grown from seeds. Growing from seed could take an extra three or four years before they bear fruit if not longer. When grown from a graft, you might see fruit after three to four years.

Can Hydroponic Nutrients Go Bad?

Nutrient Soil

Because hydroponics plants are grown without soil, the only way they can obtain their nutrients is through additions to their water supply. Bottles of nutrients are often purchased by the gallon to make it cost-effective, and as a result, they might be standing for an extended period. New users might be concerned, and they have wasted money purchasing larger bottles. Is this the case?

Can Hydroponic Nutrients Go Bad? The good news is, hydroponic nutrients won’t go bad. However, nutrients need caring for and using correctly. If you overdose nutrients, symptoms are nutrient burn, salt build up, possible plant death, and you might dispose of nutrients you think are bad.

If you see these symptoms and need to know how to put things right without throwing out your nutrients, it is possible to save your unhealthy looking plants, and also save your bottles of nutrients, so carry on reading and find out all the answers.

My Plants Look Sick, So I Must Have Bad Nutrients?

Why Are My Nutrients Separating in the Bottles?

When you purchase your nutrients, there is a chance you might not see any expiration dates on the bottles, although this does depend on the quality of nutrient and the supplier. You might think no expiration date is a bad thing, but it is the first sign that your nutrients won’t go bad.

Once you open your bottles and start using them, you might see precipitates forming on the bottom. These solids are nothing to worry about, and in most cases giving the container, a good shake is enough to dissolve them again, so they become suspended back in the mixture.

These precipitates are compounds which are less soluble than other nutrients, and when left standing, they recombine to form solids. Calcium is the biggest culprit for this. Storing nutrients in a cool dark area with the top firmly fixed is a good practice.

Checking Nutrient Levels

We have determined nutrients don’t go bad for many years, and even then they might be okay to use. Having the correct nutrient levels is crucial because this is what provides your plants with the best chance of growth to their full potential.

Once you begin growing hydroponically, you will need to know what the optimum levels are for your plants, and this determines the levels of nutrients you will be adding. There are a few things that need checking when you come to mix your nutrients and add them to your hydroponic system:

  • Parts Per Million (PPM) – This is a standard form of measurement, but in the world of hydroponics, it is a measurement of the total dissolved solids in your nutrient mix. It can also be used to measure how much CO2 is in the atmosphere.
  • Electrical Conductivity (EC) – This is the measurement of how conductive a solution is. Using an EC meter, an electrical voltage is passed to your nutrient mix and reads the how high the conductivity from mineral ion motion is being produced. If your EC levels rise too much, it shows your plants are using water faster than the nutrients.
  • pH – This is the level of alkaline or acidity of a solution. On most occasions, these readings are taken for water alone, but it is advisable to take readings once your nutrients have been added. While 7.0 is neutral, nutrient solutions are better around 6.5 because nutrients are at their most soluble at this level. You can purchase pH adjustment chemicals which can raise or lower the pH level, and also a digital pH reader so you can do quick readings and adjust as necessary.
  • Solution temperature – Temps should be between 65 – 75 degrees. Depending on your climate, you might need to either insulate your reservoir. It is worth noting, if your nutrient mix is too hot, it can breed harmful bacteria, and it won’t do your plants roots any good. If it is too hot, a reservoir chiller might be needed, but these are expensive components to purchase.

Cause and Effect of Nutrient Burn on Plants?

There is a delicate balancing act of 16 different micronutrients and macronutrients to achieve the best plant growth.  If your plants become exposed to too many of these, they can get nutrient burn. This more often than not happens when fertilizer salts reach high levels (can be measured by EC meter).

In hydroponic systems, it can be difficult to control because all the plants have the same exposure. To make things more difficult; plants can get nutrient burn when your levels are as they should be. This occurs when a plant is stressed by another factor. This can include pests or disease, and the plants can’t make use of the nutrients they are offered.

One of the first signs is brown or dead spots that run along the leaf tips and can be separated from the healthy part of the leaf by a yellow halo. Too much nitrogen can make your plants look over lush, and they are full of foliage, but, any fruits can drop early, and a final sign is shriveling root clusters.

If you are growing under grow lights and your plants are too close to the source, the ends of the leaves can burn which gives a very similar symptom. The fix for this is easy, raise the lights or move the plants further away from the source.

Adding Nutrients to Hydroponic Reservoirs Effectively

Nutrient burn can be fixed, and although the affected parts will remain the same, any new growth will be back to normal. This is a case of flushing the system and then re-establishing the correct amount of nutrients. Old nutrients should be flushed from the system, and then clean water is run through for 24-hours.

Once you have fixed your nutrient burn problem, you need to know how to add nutrients most effectively. Here are a few pointers you can follow that will guide you in maintaining the most optimum nutrient levels for your plants:

  • Mark the highest point the water reaches in your reservoir (don’t forget to measure the number of gallons you add). Check the level daily, and when you need to add to the tank keep a count of the gallons you add.
  • Only top up with pH balanced water, if you add nutrients, you rerun the risk of nutrient burn.
  • When you can see you have replaced 50% of your initial nutrient solution through re-filling. Stop adding water and allow the water level to drop until it is just above the top of your water pump. At this point, you can drain and refill with a new batch of nutrients.

If you have an ebb & flow system, you should take this opportunity to flush your pots to remove salts that might have built up. Carefully drench each pot and plant from the top with clean water and let them drain. Clean this out of your reservoir ready for your next batch.

Always fill your reservoir first and then add your nutrients one at a time. These should never be mixed in concentrated form as it can cause lock-out, and prevent some of the minerals being available.

There are many nutrients on the market, and not all are suitable for each plant type. It is recommended to go for 3-part nutrients. An all in one nutrient mix might be convenient, but it can’t give your plants everything they need for their full potential of growth. These deliver the right nutrients at each stage of your plants growing life.  

What are the Best Hydroponic Reservoir Tips

It doesn’t matter what type of hydroponic system you are using; the nutrient solution is the one thing they all have in common. Here are the best tips to keep the optimum nutrient levels for your plants:

  • If the water from your faucet is chlorinated, fill the reservoir or separate mixing bin and let the water sit for 24-hours so the chlorine can dissipate.
  • Once you have added your nutrients, let them settle for a couple of hours before checking your pH levels. 6.5 is the ideal pH level.
  • The solution needs to be aerated 24/7 to prevent any bacteria building up. This also helps to pass oxygen to the plant roots. An effective aquarium air pump can suffice for this job.
  • One tablespoon of hydrogen peroxide added to your reservoir weekly can help cut down on bacteria and algae growth.

Related Questions

Are hydroponic plants healthy?

This has been a debate for many years. It does depend on the nutrients the plants are being grown in. They can be as nutritious as any soil grown vegetable. Many vitamins are self-made by plants, so these levels don’t vary too much regardless of whether the plant is hydroponically grown or soil grown.

Do hydroponic vegetables need pesticides?

There is no need to use pesticides in hydroponics. Plants grown by this method are less prone to pest attacks. Many growers make use of companion crops, ladybugs and other useful insects as more natural pest control methods to combat any pests which might attack their crops.

Can I use liquid fertilizer in hydroponics?

Many commercial fertilizers only supply plants with potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen. Because no soil is used, there is a lot of other nutrients that need adding to the hydroponics liquid fertilizer to help with plant growth.

Why do Hydroponics Grow Faster and Increase Yield?

Increase Yield

Many people have heard the term hydroponics, and a few of these might have heard that it is an excellent way of growing vegetables without using soil. What they might not know, is these vegetables can grow much faster while delivering larger yields when it comes to harvesting. Something else they often ponder over is the reason why this is possible.

Why do hydroponics grow faster and increase yield? The answer is straightforward. With the right hydroponic system, balanced nutrient mixes, and perfect light exposure. The right plants grow fast. When you negate pests, bad weather and use automation to best effect, your yields will go sky high.

Are you interested in finding out what it takes to grow crops twice as fast as in soil, and do you want to see how you can grow all year round, and in less space that it would take in your garden? Carry on reading, and see how easy it is to answer these questions with your system.

How do I Grow Faster and Bigger with Hydroponics?

Types of Hydroponic Systems

There are many types of hydroponic systems you can purchase, or build and each can be better for some plants than others. When you have the right system, plants can mature 25% faster while delivering a 30% increase in yield. Here are a few of the more common system types.

  • Deepwater Culture (DWC) – This reservoir method is seen as the easiest hydroponic method of growing plants. Roots are suspended in the nutrient solution while they are oxygenated by an aquarium pump. A Deepwater Culture system has fewer parts which can clog and require cleaning.
  • NFT (Nutrient Film Technique) – In this system, there is a continual flow of the nutrient solution which runs across the top of your plant roots. The system is slightly tilted, and gravity is used once the water has been pumped to the highest level. Because root tips are the only part in the nutrient film, plants receive more oxygen which aids faster growth.
  • Wicking System – For this hydroponic system, you need a container for your plant, a reservoir to hold your nutrient mix, a growing medium (coco coir or perlite),  which absorbs water from the wicks and your wick material like rope, string or a strip of felt. This is the easiest method because there are no moving parts. Nutrients move up the wick and into the root system of your plants.
  • Ebb & Flow – These flood and drain systems are a great way to grow plants. The grow bed becomes flooded at intervals, and then the nutrients drain back to the reservoir. The pump can be put on a timer so the process is automated and plants get the correct nutrients. The dry spells encourage roots to grow longer while they search for water. As they grow, they absorb more nutrients and grow faster.

Lighting for Hydroponics Systems

Lighting is one key element that dictates plant growth. Plants require up to sixteen hours per day of light. When using grow lights, you are in control of the light plants receive, so this is why all year round growing can occur regardless of what is happening outdoors.

  • Blue light – around the 430 nm range is where plant photosynthesis occurs
  • Red light – around 660 nm a plants germination, growth in its stem and flowering can thrive
  • Infrared light – around 735 nm also helps with a plants growth from germination to harvest

White fluorescent tubes or the newer LED light panels cover these wavelengths and are ideal for mimicking the suns natural light. When you have a good hydroponic lighting system, hydroponic yields can increase by 1x – 2x.

Control Nutrients for Faster Hydroponics Growth and Higher Yields

When plants grow in soil, the roots have a hard time finding the right amount of nutrients. The earth can be compacted, so the speed of growth is slow, and this has an overall effect on the nutrients plants can find. The spacing of plants also has an impact because once they grow too close together, there is contention for nutrients in that growing area.

In soil growth, there is only a small proportion of water which is used by the plants and the rest goes by the wayside. This is the same for nutrients which enter the soil from such watering. When there is a recirculating reservoir of nutrients, such as in Deep Water Culture kits the plants have the opportunity to take as many nutrients as they need.

Now, when you choose the best hydroponic nutrients for the type of plants you are growing, you can increase yields significantly. Conventional fertilizer lacks the correct ratio for a hydroponic setup. When you purchase the optimum nutrients, you then need to look at maintaining the strength of nutrient mix (PPM’s or EC), the correct pH levels, and the nutrient temperature of 65 to 75 degrees Fahrenheit to give you faster growth and larger yields.

Hydroponic Plants For Fast Growing And Big Yields

Many elements affect how fast plants can grow, and how big your yields will be. With this in mind, there is one element which often becomes overlooked, the plants themselves. Hydroponics isn’t suitable for all vegetable types, but some excel when grown hydroponically. Here are a handful of the best yielders and fastest growers when grown in a hydroponic system.

  • Leafy greens – This variety can be ready in as little as one month after germination in an effective hydroponic system. These can include watercress, spinach, mustard greens, kale, and Swiss chard. Because they grow so fast, you need to harvest earlier, so plants have no chance to bolt and become bitter.
  • Herbs – These are ideal for growing indoors with natural light. When raised in a hydroponic system, they can benefit from a 25% growth rate. Basil, oregano, marjoram, peppermint, and spearmint are the most common varieties. Many can be plucked as needed, and in the case of mint, the more you pick, the more it grows.
  • Lettuce – Head lettuce varieties take longer when grown in soil, but when they are grown in a hydroponic system, they will be ready in around 6 – 8 weeks. Most common head varieties are Iceberg.
  • Leafy Lettuce – Romaine, Bibb, and Buttercrunch are rapid growers when grown with conventional methods, but put them in a hydroponic system, and they become supercharged and can grow in as little as three weeks.

It should be noted; plants won’t grow or yield any extra by being in a hydroponic system, they merely can develop to their genetic maximum.

Weather, Pests, Automation and Growing Space

Although mother nature does wonders for every living thing, she can make it hard for plants in specific regions. Hydroponics is excellent because it can be carried out in a greenhouse, undercover or a hydroponic grow tent where there is no impact from the weather outside. As an aside, this not only enables your plants to grow faster, you can grow all year round when you control the environment and increase yields dramatically.

When you have a hydroponic system, the space required is far less than is required by conventional growing methods. Now the roots are not fighting for nutrients in the soil, the only limiting factor to how close they can grow together is being shaded by the next plant. Hydroponics can return yields almost four times as much as similar space in the soil.

Compared to soil gardens, a hydroponic system is a pretty sterile environment. Pests and infestations are drastically reduced which are introduced through the soil. Plants are given an easier route to grow faster and to produce yields from leaves that would commonly be damaged or eaten by pests.

Automation, is one of the hydroponic beauties once you have set it up. Pumps can be set on timers and depending on where your system is located; you can configure your lighting timer to come on as the sun goes down. Even temperatures in your growing area can be automated to heat or cool as required. It might cost money, but these costs are well worth it when you see bountiful crops in half the time of a natural garden.

Related Questions

Is hydroponics growing better than in soil?

If you are growing with similar conditions, then your hydroponics plants can grow from between 30% – 50% faster than soil-based plants. The nutrients you add are as good as anything in the soil and are available precisely as your plants require them.

Can you grow hydroponics outdoors?

Outdoor hydroponics will provide half of what is required for your plants to thrive. All you need to make sure is your reservoir is under cover where rain won’t dilute your nutrient mixture. There is also the fact you can grow plants closer together, and there will be no weeds you need to fight.

What is the best fertilizer for hydroponics?

Conventional farmers use dry fertilizer whereas home growers find liquid fertilizers serve their needs much better. A good premixed liquid fertilizer can deliver high amounts of nitrogen and essential minerals which will help increase the yields of your plants while being economical to use.

Why Is My Hydroponic Lettuce Bitter?

Bitter Lettuce

Lettuce is one of the easiest things to grow in hydroponics. You have taken up the challenge and nurtured your seeds into germination and transferred them to your hydroponics system. You have your first harvest washed and sitting in the salad bowl, but something isn’t right.

Why is my hydroponic lettuce bitter? Lettuce might be one of the easiest things to grow hydroponically. However, if you have either a nutrient-rich solution, a growing environment which is too hot, or your lighting setup isn’t at its most optimum, you will get bitter lettuce.

Do you want to grow lettuce which is full of flavor and has no aftertaste? Do you want to know what is causing it, what you can do to resolve the problem, and is it too late to save your current batch of lettuce? Find out with the answers to the questions below.

Why Does my Hydroponic Lettuce Taste Bitter?

With Hydroponics, you have full control over growing conditions, and because of this, it means there are no outside influences so you can narrow down where to start looking. The first area to check will be your nutrients.

Lettuce doesn’t require too many nutrients to flourish. So, if your mix is too rich, it can lead to the bitter taste you have experienced. Although flushing your system is not vital to grow tasty lettuce, it can help improve flavor and remove the bitter taste.

System flushing can be more critical in ebb and flow systems. These continually fill with nutrient-rich water, and then once they drain they begin to dry out. It is during the drying process when mineral salts and nitrates start sticking to everything, including the roots of your lettuce. Veteran hydroponic growers recommend flushing a system before harvesting, even though it isn’t necessary.

Flushing the Hydroponic System

It is these nitrates and mineral salts which can be the most significant cause of bitter tasting lettuce. Flushing depends on the type of hydroponic system you are using. The first thing to do is drain all the nutrient solutions from your tank. Once you have emptied the system, you then need to proceed by rinsing your tanks and hoses with plain water.

If you have a nitrate-rich nutrient mix, you will need to rinse the system two or three times. Once done, you then need to adjust your pH levels to 6.0. Both pH Up and Down plus a Testing Kit can be found online from Walmart, or they will be available from your local hydroponic supplier.

Now, you should leave your system to run for a few hours. If it is the last flush before your lettuce harvest, you can let the plain water run through your system for up to one week.

After doing this, you need to drain the system again and thoroughly rinse your hoses. You should also flush the sides of your tank and check for any buildup or debris. If there is debris, or your system doesn’t appear to be as clean as it should. Then fill the system with your pH adjusted water, rerun your system for a couple of hours, and then finally drain the system.

Any algae or nitrate buildup needs removing, and all sides of the tank wiped. Hoses need cleaning inside, as far as you can reach. Once done, mix a new batch of your nutrient solution while checking it isn’t too rich for your lettuce. Once done, refill your system and let it run.

Items for Flushing the System

Here are some of the things you will need when you flush your system.

Heat Can Cause Lettuce to Taste Bitter

Lettuce is a cool weather plant. If the air temperature rises over 75F (24°C), your lettuce begins producing chemicals for flowering and producing seeds. It is this which can be one of the causes of for the bitter taste depending on the location of your hydroponics system and your region. This will determine how you can control the temperature of your growing environment.

To be accurate in your temps, it is worth investing in a Digital Hygrometer Indoor Thermometer. You can then periodically check your temperatures and humidity. If you are growing inside a greenhouse, there is one mistake many people make, and that is to shade the plants. Shading, unfortunately, isn’t the answer and you should be looking at ventilation or a form of cooling.

Evaporative cooling is the best option and can be from either a fan and wet-pads system, a low-pressure misting system or high-pressure fog system. All these should be used in conjunction with mechanical or natural ventilation. As a last resort a shade curtain can be used, but for no more than up to four hours and only during the hottest part of the day.

Incorrect Lighting Can Make Lettuce Bolt and Taste Bitter

If you are growing indoors and using artificial lighting, then things can be easier to control. Generated heat comes from your lighting, and the worst culprits being HID (High-Intensity Discharge) growing lights. You can help combat this if you see the overall room temperature is increasing.

You can place your lights inside an air-cooled reflector where the coolest air possible is ducted to the reflector, and then vents from inside your room via insulted ducting to prevent heat transferring back inside and affecting the ambient temperature.

You have seen, heat generated from grow lights raises the temperature of indoor grow rooms. There are three basic elements included in this section. One, the lights are not the best type and produce too much heat. Two, the length of time your grow lights are turned on is too long, and there is little or no adjustment of lights when required. Finally, the best bulb or tube type isn’t being used.

The positioning of lights can be the quickest variable to resolve, and no matter what artificial lighting method you are using, light sources should be around 4-6 inches above your plants. As they grow, the distance needs adjusting to maintain this gap. Because lettuce is a fast grower, it is crucial to keep a constant check on their progress so you can manage the optimum growing distance.

Light Quality Affects the taste of Lettuce

For lettuce to grow successfully, it requires a minimum of 12 hours of light. The ideal amount of light for most plants is 14 – 16 hours. If your growing location makes use of natural light, this needs to be used in your calculation for how long you will be using grow lights. Winter time has fewer sunlight hours, and this means you will be using your grow lights for longer. If you either leave them on too long or even forget to turn them on at the correct time, it plays havoc with your plants growing schedule.

The final element is the type of grow lights you are using. There are a few types to choose, and these include LED grow panels, HID lamps and Fluorescent tubes. LED’s are finally catching up and require further discussion which leaves HID and Fluorescent.

HID grow lights are the lighting type which generates lots of heat. These are recommended for more experienced users and are the lighting types which require cooling. Fluorescent tubes are more suited to growing lettuce because they run much cooler, but even differences in these lighting tubes can affect the growth of lettuce.

T5 fluorescent tubes are the best choice over T8 or T12 tubes, even though they require different fittings. They also give off more heat than these other varieties, but allowing for this, it is the Kelvin rating which can be a reason you are finding bitter tasting lettuce.

T5 fluorescent grow lights are the most efficient of all fluorescent tubes. However, tubes with a 6500 Kelvin rating deliver a full spectrum of light, which is excellent for overall growth. Lighting tubes with a 3000 Kelvin rating produce more red spectrum light which helps encourage flowering or bolting too early.

Related Questions

How Can I Get the Bitter Taste Out of Leaf Lettuce?

It can help to separate the leaves and put them in a bowl of cold water with a pinch of baking soda. Soak for ten minutes, rinse and soak again in plain water. Drain and serve. You can also use a salad crisper, or place the lettuce leaves in the refrigerator overnight.

What is the best lettuce variety to grow hydroponically?

Many growers choose leaf lettuce (Lactuca Sativa) along with the Tom Thumb variety. The Tom Thumb variety is easy to handle and grows large enough for one head to be enough for two people. Romaine lettuce, on the other hand, takes longer to mature, so it could be more prone to becoming bitter.

How long does hydroponic lettuce take to grow?

Nearly all varieties of lettuce can be grown in a hydroponic system. Leafy lettuce varieties are the recommendation because they can grow to harvest in half the time of head varieties of lettuce. When conditions are right, you can expect to be harvesting lettuce in three to four weeks.

How Often Do You Change Water for Hydroponics?

Changing Water

If you’re just getting into hydroponics, or you just want to make sure your plants are healthy, you need to maintain your water system. A big part of that is making sure you have appropriate nutrients, pH level, and clean water.

How often do you change water for hydroponics? A general rule of thumb is that hydroponic water should be changed out every two to three weeks. Depending on your system you may change it more or less often to maintain optimal pH and nutrient levels.

The frequency with which you change your hydroponic water is important, but so is how you change it. In fact, the timing of the of the water changes is more complex than simply dumping and replacing the water bi-weekly.

How your set up affects frequency of water changes

How frequently you need to change your hydroponic water can also be affected by the specifics of your set up. Your water reservoir will inevitably lose some water volume due to evaporation and plant use.

You’ll lose more water due to evaporation if your set up has a lot of light and heat. This is even more so if there’s not sufficient coverage on your reservoir, or if your reservoir is placed relatively close to light and heat sources. Likewise, if you have a high plant density or plants that use more water, you’ll lose water faster. So if you plan on growing something like irises, lettuce, or spinach, you’ll need to add water more frequently.

Smaller water reservoirs need to be topped off with fresh water more frequently than larger reservoirs. We’ve written a complete guide to water tanks with size estimation along with everything we think you need to know.

In most cases, you’ll need to add water to your hydroponics in between water changes. If you have a fair amount of water loss, plan on topping up the water as frequently as daily. If you don’t notice much difference in the water level from day to day, plan on topping up the water every few days. Every two to three weeks you will have to change out more water. Once you’re more familiar with your hydroponics system you’ll be able to develop a steady routine for topping up the water and doing partial water changes on a schedule.

How to change out your hydroponic water

When you change out your hydroponic water, you’ll be doing it in two ways. It’s important to use both ways of replacing water, and to do both regularly. We’ll cover more about the reasons for this later but for now, you need to know what the two methods are and how to do them.

The first kind of “water change” is when you top off your water reservoir. When you notice your water getting lower, you need to top it off. The best way to do this is using pH balanced, clean water. You will end up adding water several times weekly, if not daily. When you top off the water, be sure to measure and log the amount of water you add. You’ll need these logs later to help determine when to do a bigger water change.

The second type of water change is much less frequent, and switches out a much larger volume of water. Once your logs show that you’ve added about half of your total reservoir volume by doing top ups, you need to do a larger water change.

To do this, empty or drain 50% the total volume and replace it with fresh water (example: if your reservoir holds 100 liters, and over a couple weeks your logs show you’ve added 50 liters by topping up the water, it’s time for you to take out 50 liters and add the same amount clean, pH balanced water). Most hydroponic systems need this larger water change as frequently as every two weeks, although smaller reservoirs may need it as often as every week to ten days.

Water changes to manage pH and nutrients

Maintaining your pH level and making sure you provide your plants with enough nutrients is part of the reason that regular water changes are so important. Over time, the pH of your water will change. If your pH isn’t in the acceptable range for your plants, they won’t be able to absorb any of the nutrients you’ve added to the water. If you aren’t sure how to check the pH of your water you can read our full guide here.

Only changing out the water in its entirety isn’t ideal for your plants. First, because other compounds, such as ammonia or nitrites, can accumulate to harmful levels that ultimately kill your plants. Second, without an infusion of fresh water, the water in your reservoir can become a stagnant haven for bacteria and fungi. That, combined with roots made susceptible by chemical damage, creates an ideal situation for root rot to move in. If you aren’t sure about the best ways to prevent and treat root rot then we’ve written a guide for you here.

The most important reason you need regular water changes to maintain pH, rather than a single and infrequent water change, is to prevent shock to your plants. Regularly adding clean water, in between bi weekly water changes allows you to maintain a steady pH level.  Sudden, drastic changes in water conditions (like what happens when water is completely changed) can cause more harm than benefits to plants.

Managing nutrient saturation

While water changes help when you’re adding nutrients, they also help prevent damage to plants from over saturation of minerals. When nutrients are used by plants there are still traces of minerals and compounds left behind. Plants use up more water volume than they do nutrients, which creates a situation where nutrients are more saturated than when you first added them. Too much of these leftover trace minerals can burn plant roots or kill your plants. So if you’re not sure if your nutrient levels are helping or harming, always test for it.

Testing to determine water changes

There are situations where you’ll need to change water more or less frequently than you usually would. This switch in water change routine is typically a response to correct harmful conditions for plants. With regular testing, you can monitor the water quality of your reservoir and correct problems before they become urgent.

Different types of testing

There are two main types of water testing you need to be familiar with to properly maintain your hydroponic water. There are other more in depth tests you can use for your water, but for the average hydroponic gardener pH and EC testing are more than sufficient.

pH testing

pH tests help monitor the pH, or potential hydrogen, levels of your water. For most plants the ideal pH is between the range of 5.5 to 6.5. While this fluctuates slightly between water cycles, it shouldn’t change drastically. You should test your pH every three days or so, unless you notice your plants showing signs of wilting, illness, damage or discoloration. pH test kits can be purchased in either paper strip or liquid solution form. Now, digital pH testing pens are being used more frequently due to their convenience and accuracy.

EC testing

EC testing, also known as electrical conductivity testing, will help you monitor and maintain the strength of your hydroponic nutrient solutions. While your ideal EC level will vary depending on your chosen crop, most plants thrive at levels between 1.2 to 2.0. If your EC is below that, you know you need to add more nutrients to your water. Likewise, if your EC level is too high, you need to add in clean water to dilute the solution. In extreme cases, you may have to remove some water and replace it with fresh water, gradually lowering the level over several days. The most common EC testing method uses a digital pen, and some testing pens can test for both EC and pH. Some people test daily until they’re more familiar with their water levels. At the very least you should be testing EC levels every three days (when you test your pH), and every time you add nutrient solution. We’ve got a comprehensive guide to testing the EC in water if you aren’t sure.

Related Questions

How often do I need to clean out my water reservoir?

Much like with water changes, this can vary depending on your set up. Smaller reservoirs require more frequent cleaning. A good rule of thumb to follow is this: once the water you’ve been replacing or topping up with equals your total tank capacity, it’s time to clean it out.

Do I need to add extra aeration to my hydroponics system?

Using an air pump or stone isn’t required for every hydroponics setup. However, if your plants’ roots are fully submerged, it’s a safe bet to oxygenate your water. This not only keeps plants from “drowning” without oxygen, but also helps inhibit the growth of bacteria, algae, and fungi, thus reducing plant disease.

Is It Safe to Buy Hydroponic Gardening Equipment Online?

Hydroponic Equipment Online

Over half of all purchases made annually are made online.  E-Commerce is a huge industry and most people don’t give shopping online a second thought.  But what if you are purchasing items that could be misinterpreted as questionable (read: illegal) activity?

Is it safe to buy hydroponic gardening equipment online? Yes, it is perfectly safe to buy hydroponic gardening equipment online, as long as you buy from reputable websites and take precautions to protect yourself from identity theft.

Several online stores – particularly those specializing in home improvement, such as Home Depot – have dedicated sub-menus specifically for hydroponic equipment.

Hydroponics 101

In ultra-simple terms, hydroponics is gardening without the soil.  A more complex explanation is hydroponics is a method of growing plants in a soil-free nutrient solution.  Perlite, rockwool, clay pellets or peat moss are used as an alternative to soil.

Hydroponic gardening allows the plants to have access to direct oxygen and nutrients without the bugs and cold weather worries.  If you provide proper light and water, hydroponic plants can grow 30-50 percent faster. (Information courtesy of Greentrees Hydroponics)

There are a variety of hydroponic systems available to purchase.  The systems are either active or passive. An active system is the preferred method because they are more effective in moving the nutrient solutions throughout the plants, usually via a pump. A passive system relies on a wick or medium to pass along the absorbed nutrients onto the roots.  (“Medium” refers to the materials used to make the plants grow.)

Types of Hydroponic Systems

  • Wick System

The simplest and least expensive system, the Wick System uses the candle wick to absorb the nutrients into the growing medium.

  • Water Culture

Comprised of a styrofoam platform that holds the plants, the platform floats directly over the nutrient solution, providing water to the roots.  Leaf lettuce is the only plant that works well with this system, making it popular among elementary school teachers.

  • Nutrient Film Technique System

In the Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) System, plants are placed in net pots, which are then partially submerged in a channel that hovers above the main reservoir.  The channel has a constant flow of nutrient solution running across the bottom of the channel (the “film” part of the name) that drains into the larger reservoir.

  • Aeroponic System

The Aeroponic System is considered the highest tech of the different systems.  The plants are suspended from the air in a basket and misted with the nutrient solution.  The misting occurs at preset intervals that can be adjusted to your liking.

The Ebb And Flow System drench the plants in the nutrients and then drains the solution into the reservoir via a pump with a timer.

  • Continuous Drip System

Perhaps the most popular system, the Continuous Drip System utilizes a timer-controlled pump that trips the necessary nutrients onto the plants.

Online Vs. In-Store Purchasing

When considering the merits of online shopping against in-store shopping, it is important to keep in mind convenience, customer service, warranties and returns/exchanges.

The biggest advantage of online shopping is the convenience of not having to find a parking spot, brushing your hair or fighting the crowds.  Shopping online is virtually hassle-free. You can purchase your item with the click of your mouse instead of waiting in long check-out lines for the next available register.

While good or bad Customer Service is a reflection on the store itself, it is ultimately the responsibility of the Customer Service employee as to whether your experience is excellent or poor.

Online Customer Service is a fantastic option if you prefer not to deal with people face-to-face.  However, that lack of human interaction can lead to a feeling of impersonality and lead to miscommunications and misunderstandings.

Many retailers offer free or low-cost shipping options when it comes time for your order to be delivered.  More and more stores now offer in-store pick-up, where you order online and if a local store has it in stock, you can go there to pick it up the same day that you order it.  That option is dependent upon whether the store physically has the item on-hand, so it may not be particularly feasible in rural areas. Online retailers also allow you to have the item shipped to your local brick-and-mortar store to pick-up instead of directly to your home or office.  

When you shop for an item online, you are faced with a plethora of merchants available.  It can be difficult to know which ones are real and which are scams. Unless it is a well-known chain-store, proceed with caution.  Do your due diligence and research the stores if they seem the least bit sketchy.

Warranties offer guaranteed protection if the item you purchase breaks or has other issues.  Some companies void warranties if the item is purchased online, so that is important information to weigh when making online purchases. So, again – do your research if you plan to make big-ticket item purchases.

Returning or exchanging an item is easier in-store than it is online.  It is certainly quicker. To return an item online — assuming the company allows returns — you have to fill out the return paper, repackage it and take it to the post office, where it has to be shipped and processed.  Returning an item to an online store could take days or even weeks if you purchased from an overseas company.

When you weigh the pros and cons of online shopping and making your purchases in-store, online shopping is certainly more efficient and convenient.

Tips for Purchasing Hydroponic Gardening Equipment Online

Any purchase online is a gamble.  Websites can be susceptible to hacking and your information being stolen.  If you purchase online, your credit card information can be readily available if the website is hacked.  Some websites also sell the addresses and phone numbers of their customers to other companies. While that isn’t likely to affect your credit card, being inundated with unwanted phone calls and junk mail can be an inconvenience.

Another potential option in online shopping is to buy your equipment through eBay or Craigslist.  eBay is a legitimate wholesaler that also allows users to sell items secondhand.

Craigslist is a bit trickier, though.  Like eBay, it allows its users to post items for sale, but there’s no oversight regarding the quality of the merchandise.   It’s akin to a giant internet garage sale. Unless you’re up for a long drive, items are usually purchased locally and picked-up in person.  Money is typically exchanged during the pick-up and it can be a dangerous situation. The best thing to do when using Craigslist is to have a friend go with you to pick-up the item you’ve purchased.  

Related Questions

Is it illegal to own hydroponic equipment?

The short answer to this question is no.  The longer answer is much more complex and depends what you want to grow, as the topic of legalizing marijuana has drawn a lot of undue attention to hydroponic equipment sellers.  Some states in the US are taking steps to legalize cannabis for medical use and recreational use. Other states are taking the opposite stand and cracking down on marijuana offenses.

What is a grow shop?

A grow shop is a retail store that sells hydroponic and other supplies for growing plants indoors.  Unlike merchants that sell a variety of inventory, grow shops are dedicated solely to the booming indoor growing niche. The store can be an online business or a brick-or-mortar store.

What Can You Grow With Hydroponics?

If you can grow it in an outdoor garden, the chances are that you can grow it in an indoor greenhouse as well.  Rooting, stalking and vines crops (such as potatoes) can be difficult because they require more depth for growing.  

Herbs, salad greens and vegetables are among the most popular choices in hydroponic growing.  Flowers grow well, too. Some flower ideas are marigolds, carnations, roses and even sunflowers.

What Are The Benefits to Hydroponic Gardening?

Gardening is a hobby enjoyed by people in many countries around the world.  Most people think of garden as being outdoors, but there are many benefits to indoor gardening:

  • Indoor and outdoor growing year-round

Not all climates are friendly to outdoor gardening.  Hydroponic gardening allows people to grow their plants indoors during the colder months and transfer them outside in the warmer months if desired.

  • Saves water and damage to soil

Plants grown using the hydroponic system get their food from water and nutrient solutions instead of soil.  Many systems have recycling water systems.

  • Plants grow faster

It is proven that hydroponic plants grow 30-50 percent faster with higher yields.

  • No pests or weeding necessary

Growing indoors prevents plant-killing pests from infecting the plants.